The Language of New Media
Manovich also asks what is new media like Flew did in What Is New Media
He also asks are things like CD-ROMs, virtual reality and DVDs are there all to new media.
Said is that fact that website and electronic books are considered to be new media whereas texts distributed on paper are not.
Photos that are not put on CD are new media but photos printed in the book are not?
Said we are in the middle of new media revolution-Shift of all culture to computer-mediated forms of production distribution and communication.
Printing press= Distribution of media
Computer revolution affects all communication like storage and all types of media like text and images.
Translation of all existing media into
numerical data accessible to computer……result new media like graphics, moving images, sounds, shapes, spaces and texts.
How Media Became New
August 1839-New reproduction process
1833-Babbage Analytical Engine could do mathematical operations
1800- Jacquard invented loom (Flowers and leaves)
Photography, film, printing press, television, radio made former possible but computer top them all
1890’s- Photos in motion
1893- Movie studio Edison’s Black Maria
1892- 1st scientific audience and paying public
Principal of New Media
Summarizes different between new and old media
- Numerical Representation- One example is to remove “noise” it would require numeric manipulation
Modern media has discrete levels because it emerged during Industrial Revolution.
Mentions how Henry Ford’s assembly line relied on two principles simple repetitive and sequential activity for workers who could be easily replaced.
This is an example of modularity something that was edited by a user. Photo found on http://www.flickr.com/photos/52707468@N02/4860871545/sizes/s/
“Fractural structure of new media” Example is like when and object inserted into a document like media clip it continues to maintain independence and can always be edited with the program originally used to create it. Another example is the World Wide Web and it consists of separate media elements and every element can be accessed at its own time.
One example of “low automation” is how it is created from scratch and a media’s object using templates or simple algorithms example Photoshop
Researchers are working on high level automation so computers can understand embedded objects being generated
Talks about 1990’s and how chat room become familiar with “bots” computers program to stimulate human conversation.
MIT Media Lab developed devoted to “high level automation” which was the “smart camera” which automatically follows the action and frames the shot.
AI (Artificial Intelligence) Ex: computer game person can’t speak to opponent only thing user can do is attack
Computers can only pretend to be intelligent and trick us by using very small parts of who we are when we communicate.
Said things like photo camera, film camera and tape recorder led to new stage of media revolution. Thus automation becomes the next logical stage when 1st picture was taken.
New media is not something fixed one and for all but something that can exist in different versions
Principal of variability is closely connected to automation
Author also mentions immediacy and reality
- 1. Media Database (How we conceive data)
- 2. Number of different interfaces can be created at same time
- 3. Information about user can be used (What user will see)
- 4. Branch tree interactivity (Products user can visit to form branching tree)
- 5. Hypermedia (Elements making document are connected)
- 6. Periodic Updates (Updates can be found online and downloaded automatically)
- 7. Scalability (Full size image and icon generated by Photoshop)
New media consists of two things cultural layer (Encyclopedia) and Computer layer (Data packets transmitted through networks
Both cultural layer and computer layer influence each other.
Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2001. Print